Pfrimmer Deep Muscle Therapy- Developed by Therese Pfrimmer of Canada in 1940's as a result of her battle with paralysis.  Pfrimmer therapy is detailed cross fiber friction that stimulates circulation and regenerates the lymphatic flow. The work enables free flow of lymph and blood as well as improving joint movement and removal of waste products/toxins from muscle tissue.  Training is a 2 week course.
Web resources:
Pfrimmer method


Pilates- Pilates is a method of movement and execise developed by Joseph Pilates.  The exercises focus on development of the core muscles and work to lengthen the muscles while strengthening them.  Pilates is also sometimes called "The Method" as there is some controversy over the rights to the work.
Book resources:
The Complete Guide to Joseph H Pilates Techniques of Physical Conditioning by Allan Menezes
The Pilates Body by Brook Siler
Web resources:

Polarity- Developed by Austrian born  Randolph Stone in the 1920's.  Stone was trained in chiropractic, osteopathic medicine, naturopathic medicine and Ayurvedic methods. he also studied Yoga extensively.  Polarity theory is based on the principle that every cell has both negative and positive poles and the body is gently manipulated through touch or holding of tissue. The top and right side of the body have positive charges and the feet and left side have a negative charge.  The practitioner places their right hand on the negative charged parts of the client and the left hand on positively charged parts.  Integrates bodywork, diet, simple exercises (polarity yoga) and self- awareness.  Emphasizes the connection of the body, mind, emotions and spiritual connections.  The intention is to balance the energy in the body, toward the ultimate goal of uniting body, mind, emotions and spirit.  Training is a 430 hour program.
Book resources:
Polarity Therapy by Randolph Stone
Web resources:
Polarity Realization Institute-
American Polarity Association- Randolph Stone's work


Postural Integration- Jack Painters work developed from his training in Rolfing. Focus on the unity of tissue, feeling and awareness using breathwork, deep fascia manipulation, emotional expression and meditation.  Training consists of a 3 year program: the first 2 years are supervised instruction, the 3 year is supervised internship.
Book resources:
Deep bodywork   by Jack Painter   (out of print but check www.bookfinder.com or www.half.com)
Web resources:
International Center for Release and Integration


Pregnancy Massage- Massage therapy techniques geared toward the expectant mother.  There are many health concerns and complications to take into consideration when working with a pregnant woman.  Most techniques are done in the side-lying position as they are unable to lay prone.  In most cases massage can be done right up to and including delivery.

Massage is an ancient form of healing, pain management and stress relief. The Chinese practiced it more than 3000 years ago, and it has been used continually since then. Massage is the manipulation of the soft body tissue - muscles, connective tissue and the largest organ - skin. Today there are many modalities of bodywork and massage; Swedish, Deep Tissue, Reflexology, just to name a few.

Pregnancy massage focuses on the special needs of the mother-to be, as her body progresses through the dramatic changes, of the childbirth experience - pregnancy, birth, and post-partum.

Postpartum massage is designed to help restore the body to it’s pre-pregnancy condition and to address the stress of carrying and caring for a newborn. It can speed recovery
by bringing relief to sore muscles and helping the mother to relax. Abdominal massage can help shrink the uterus and relieve subcutaneous scar tissue.


Benefits of Massage During Pregnancy: A woman’s body undergoes many changes during pregnancy leading to stress and discomfort. Massage is a perfect way of reducing stress and promoting general well-being of the pregnant woman. The benefits of massage include:

  • provides relaxation
  • helps relieve depression and anxiety caused by hormonal changes
  • helps in reducing stress
  • helps in reducing fatigue and makes the mother feel more energetic
  • releases endorphins
  • eliminates waste products through the lymphatic and circulatory systems
  • helps muscle tone
  • promotes muscle elasticity by removing all kinds of muscular discomforts, such as cramping, tightening, stiffness, and knots
  • minimizes spider veins
  • reduces stress on weight-bearing joints
  • helps alleviate morning sickness
  • gives relief from muscle cramps, spasms, and pain, especially in the lower back, neck, hips, and legs.
  • helps in proper blood and lymph circulation, which can reduce swelling
  • Eases the load on heart and helps to keep the blood pressure in check
  • Eases labor pain
  • Helps maximize breathing capacity, which is very important during labor and delivery
  • relieves many discomforts during pregnancy, such as backaches, leg cramps, headaches, stiff neck, swollen ankles and feet
  • helps to soothe and relax nervous tension that a pregnant woman experiences, and helps her sleep more easily and deeply
  • the caring touch provides emotional and physical support for the pregnant woman
  • provides assistance in maintaining proper posture
  • relief from headache and sinus congestion

Massage during pregnancy is usually safe, but there are certain circumstances in which massage should be totally avoided. Some of them are:

  • if there is any kind of heavy discharge (watery or bloody)
  • if the pregnant woman has diabetes
  • if there is any cardiac disorder or heart disease
  • if the woman has ashthma
  • if there is any contagious illness
  • if there was any problem in previous pregnancy like a miscarriage
  • if the woman is suffering from fever, vomiting or severe morning sickness
  • if the woman is experiencing unusual pain 
  • if she has high blood pressure
  • if there is abdominal pain
  • if the woman has diarrhea
  • if she has severe anemia
  • if she has any kind of lung or liver disorder
  • if the pregnant woman is addicted to drugs or uses drugs in any form
  • if there is abnormal Fetal Heartbeat
  • Decrease or absence of fetal movement
  • or any other malignant condition

Areas of the body that should not be massaged include:

  • any kind of skin rashes, open sores or bruises
  • any kind of inflammation or infection
  • raised or distended varicose veins

According to a recent study, massage reduces the level of stress hormones in babies and helps them sleep better and cry less. It was also found to be beneficial for mothers suffering from postnatal depression.

Researchers found out that massages help create a closer bond between babies and their mothers. Massage helps in promoting mental and physical health in infants.

All the babies in the study were healthy, full-term babies whose average age was around six months. It was found that massage affects the release of melatonin, a hormone that is known to help sleep patterns.

The massage should include touching the baby’s body, from head to toe, and looking into the eyes. It should be very gentle and must be done very carefully using light strokes.

The following points should be considered first before going for any types of massage during pregnancy:

  • Always consult your physician before proceeding with any kind of massage.
  • Don’t apply direct and sustained pressure to the area between the ankle bone and heel. Because this area is connected to the uterus and vagina, it is thought that heavy pressure to this area could result in early labor.
  • when looking for a pregnancy or postpartum massage therapist, make sure that the therapist is certified in pregnancy massage. The therapist should have special training and know exactly what is safe for mother and baby. Just being a massage therapist does not mean that he/she is qualified enough to give massage to pregnant and postpartum women. So look for a trained pregnancy massage therapist.
  • Positioning of the pregnant woman during a massage is critical to the safety and wellbeing of the mother and the baby. And the same applies to which parts of the body should be massaged and which not.
  • Do not perform massage of any kind during the first three months of pregnancy.
  • Avoid massaging on the abdomen or lower back. Or do it very gently.
  • Do not massage near the varicose veins. This rule is followed by most massage therapists.
  • Do not use certain oils during pregnancy. Some oils are harmful during pregnancy, so check with your physician.
  • Be very gentle when massaging a pregnant woman. Never use deep pressure and percussive strokes.
  • Avoid certain forms of massage therapy, if your doctor recommends one. Some massages may suit some women while some may not. And adhere to those limitations set by your doctor.
  • Although it has its benefits, it is important to remember that massage can also lead to miscarriage if done incorrectly. It is important for massage therapists to know how to massage a pregnant woman properly. If prenatal massage is done improperly, the risk of miscarriage is very high.

Web resources:
 Carol Osborne Sheets www.bodytherapyassociates.com

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation- Developed by Dorothy Voss.  Use of controlled movements to stretch, lengthen and re-organize the muscle.  based on Sherrington's Principle of reciprocal innervation: when the agonist is firing and the affected joint moves, the antagonist group will be inhibited.

Clinical Massage Certification - Clinical Massage Transcript - Traditional Chinese Medicine Degree - Traditional Chinese Medicine Transcript
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