The Muscles 

Also Read: [Chest and trunk] [Forearm and hand] [Muscles Head Neck] [Neck] [Hip] [Muscle of the Leg -Chart] [Shoulder and arm]


Muscle

Origin

Insertion

Action

Trapezius

Occipital bone, ligament nuchae, Sp C7 T12

Lateral third of clavicle, spine of scapular, acromiun process

Elevate, depress, rotate, adduct scapular

Latissimus dorsi

Sp T7 L5, sacrum, coccyx, posterior iliac crest, thoracolumba fascia

Intertubular groove of humerous

Medial rotation, adduction, extension of arm

Subscapularis

Subscapular fossa

Lesser tubercle of humerous

Medially rotates arm

Teres minor

Lateral border of scapular

Greater tubercle of humerus

Rotates arm laterally

Teres major

Axilliary border of scauplar

Intertubercular groove of humerus

Adduction, medial rotation, extension of arm and draws down

Rhomboids

C7 T5

Medial or vertebral border of scapular

Adducts scapular

Deltoid

Lateral 1/3 of clavicle, acromion process, spine of scapular

Deltoid tubercle

Abduct arm, flexion and medially rotate, extend and laterally rotate

Biceps brachi

Longhead

Short head

Supraglenoid tubercle of scapular

Coronoid process of scapular

Radial tubercle

 

Radial tubercle

Flexes and supinates forearm

Flexes and supinates forearm

Triceps brachii

Long head

Medial head

 

Lateral

Infraglenoid tubercle

Distal posterior surface of humerus

Posterior surface of humerus (superior radial groove)

 

 

Olecranon surface of ulna

 

 

 

 

(only longhead can adduct and extend humerus)

extension of forearm

Wrist flexor

Medial epicondyle

Palmer surface carpals, metacarpals and phlanges

Flx wrist, hand and fingers

Wrist extensor

Lateral epicondyle

Dorsal surface of carpals, metacarpals and phlanges

Extension of wrist, hand and fingers

Sternocleidomastoid (SCM)

Sternum, clavicle

Mastoid process

Unilateral contraction (one muscle contracts) rotates head in opposite direction, bilateral contraction flexion of head, extends head

Semispinalis capitis

Levator scapulae

Splenius capitis

C7 T6

 

C1 C4

 

Ligamentum nuchae and C7 T4

Occipital bone

 

Superior angle of scapula

 

Occipital bone and mastoid process at temporal bone

Extend head, rotate

 

Elevate scauplae, lateral flexion of neck

Extend and rotate head

Psoas major

TP of L1 L5 & bodies and intervertebra disks of T12-L5

Lesser trochanter

Flex thigh, flex vertebral column and assist lateral rotation of hip

Iliacus

Iliac fossa (upper 2/3)

Tedont of psoas major

Flex thigh and assist lateral rotation of hip

Gluteus maximus

Gluteus medius

Gluteus minimus

Post iliac crest, sacrum, coccyx

Outer surface of ilium inferior to iliac crest

Inferior to gluteus medius

Gluteal tuberosity, ileotibial band (ITB)

Greater trochanter

 

Greater trochanter

Extends thigh and hip, lateral rotation

 

Abduct thigh and hip

Tensor fasciae latae

Anterior iliac crest

Lateral condyle of tibia

Flex and medially rotate thigh

Piriformis

Anterior sacrum

Greater trochanter

Laterally rotate thigh and help abduct thigh

Hamstrings

Biceps femoris

Short head

Long head

Sensitendinous

 

Semimembranosus

 

 

Linea aspera

Ischial tuberosity

Ischial tuberosity

 

Ischial tuberosity

 

 

Head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia

 

Proximal medial surface of tibia

Medial condyle of tibia

 

 

 

Extends thigh and hip (except for short head biceps femoris), flexes leg and knee

Sartorius

ASIS

Proximal medial tibia

Flex, abduct and lateral rotate thigh (cross legs)

 Quadriceps

Rectus femoris

 

Vastus medial

 

Vastus intermedius

 

Vastus lateralis

 

Anterior, inferior iliac spine

Linea aspera (posterior aspect of the femur)

 

Anterial and lateral femur

Linea aspera (posterior aspect of the femur)

 

 

 

 

 

Tibial tuberosity via the patella tendon

 

(rectus femoris is only one that flex thigh and hip)

 

extends lower leg and knee

Gracilis

Inverior ranus of pubis

Proximan medial tibia

Adduct thigh, assist flexion and medial rotation of leg (knee flexed)

Adductor longis

Pubic crest and symphysis

Linea aspera (medial lip)

Adduct thigh and assist flexion, extension and medial rotation of thigh

Adductor brevis

Inferior ranus of pubis

Linea aspera (superior half)

Adduct thigh and assist flexion, extension, medial rotation of thigh

Adductor magnus

Inferior ranus of psoas and ischial tuberosity

Linea aspera of adductor tubucle

Adduct thigh and assist with flexion, extension and medial rotation of thigh

Tibialis anterior

 

 

 

Inverts foot

Extensor hallucis longus

Middle half of anterior surface of fibula

Base of distal, phalanx of great toe (dorsal surface)

Extens great toe, assist with dorsi flexion and inversion of foot

Extensor digitorum longus

Proximal 2.3 of anterior surface of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia

Bases of middle and distal phlanges of lateral 4 toes (dorsal surface)

Extend lateral 4 toes, dorsiflex foot, assist to evert foot

Peroneus tertius

Distal third of anterior surface of fibula

Base of 5th metatarsal (dorsal surface)

Dorsiflex and evert foot

Gastroenemius

(Gaster=belly)

Lateral and medial condyles of femur

Calcaneus by way of calcaneal tendon (achilles tendon)

Plantar flexes foot

Soleus

Posterior aspect head of fibula and medial border of tibia

Calcaneus by way of calcaneal tendon (achilles tendon)

Planter flexes foot

 Flexor hallucis longis

Distal 2/3 of posterior surface of fibula

Base of distal phalanx of great toe (planter surface)

Flex distal phalanx of great toe, assist planter flexion and invert foot

Flexor digitorum longis

Medial posterior fibula

Base of tistal phalanges of lateral 4 toes (planter surface)

Flex distal phalanges of lateral 4 toes, assist planter flexion and invert foot

Tibialis posterior

Lateral posterior tibia and proximal half of posterior surface of fibula

Navicular all cuneiforms, bases of 2nd, 3rd and 4th metatarsals, cuboid and sustentaculum of calcaneus (planter surface)

Invert foot, assist plantar flexion of foot

Peroneous longus

Proximal 2/3 of lateral surface of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia

1st cuneiform, base of 1st metatarsal (plantar surface)

Evert foot, assit plantar flexion of foot

Peroneus brevis

Distal 2/3 of lateral surface of fibula

Base of 5th metatarsal (lateral surface)

Evert foot, assist plantar flexion of foot