Pathology for Massage Therapists
of the sebaceous gland ducts in the skin; bacterial infection.
sebaceous glands secreting too much oil leads to clogging of pores; may
be genetic, hormonal related, over consumption of fatty foods, junk foods,
and meat, nutritional deficiencies, using cosmetics, allergies, stress,
liver toxicity, toxins
heads, white heads, small inflamed pustules
to surrounding area, may want to avoid direct contact as it may be painful;
may assist in detoxification
Detoxification process may lead to more acne; some oils or lotions may
clog pores of client and cause acne. Use water based lotion or no lotion
or oil at all. Remove oil with alcohol or shower directly after treatment.
May be on antibiotics (may cause intestinal imbalance) or retinoids (may
cause joint pain and hair loss) Refer to appropriate health care provider
for nutritional support and detoxification.
Links to Pictures- University
Iowa Dermatology, Adam.com,
myofascial structures bind together due to excess scar tissue formation
Causes: limited movement,
reduced hydration, compression, impingement, trauma, improper healing
atrophy, reduced ROM, pain, stiffness, shortened muscles with increased
risk of injury
to break up adhesions using friction, trigger point therapy, deep tissue
work as tolerated, ice massage, active and passive stretching; increase
flexibility and circulation
May have inflammation present - treat accordingly.
AIDS -see HIV/AIDS
to an antigen causing tissue damage
Causes: May be caused
by depleted immune system, hereditary, emotional , stress (depletes
cortisol levels which is needed to reduce inflammation), anger, toxicity
of the body, poor diet, deficient digestive enzymes
congestion, coughing, itching, hay fever, asthma, eczema, hives, skin rashes,
is OK. Detoxification, lymphatic drainage
Check for allergies to oils, detergents, latex. Refer to appropriate health
Allergy Elimination Technique - effective for chemical sensitivities,
disorder in which the cerebral neurons become dysfunctional
causes include metal toxicity (aluminum), nutritional deficiencies( B vitamins,
zinc, A, E and carotene)
mental deterioration, depression, memory loss, inability to concentrate,
loss of bladder and bowel control, build up of plaque in the brain
help reduce stress; Aromatherapy for stress reduction- Chamomile, germanium,
lavender, marjoram, rosemary, ylang ylang; family members may need
May not be useful in later stages as mental capacities diminish: Refer
to appropriate health care provider.
ALS (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)
Lou Gherig's disease
neuromuscular disease in which the motor cells in the spinal cord degenerate
leading to muscular weakness
weakness and wasting of muscles of hands and feet, followed by twitches
and cramps; use of muscle decreases; affects the palate, pharynx, tongue,
neck and shoulders in advanced stages leading to difficulty in speech and
swallowing; affects mainly men between 40-70 years old. There is
no definite test for diagnosis. Death usually occurs within 2-10
May help reduce stress; check for other contraindications. Communication
may be difficult.
Get physician referral.
is a sign not a disease. There are many kinds and are all characterized
by reduced blood red blood cell count or hemoglobin
diet lacking in iron, amino acids or vitamin B12. Pernicious- insufficient
production of red blood cells from an inability to produce a necessary
factor. Hemmorrhagic- from excessive bleeding. Hemolytic- red
blood cells plasma membranes rupture prematurely. Aplastic- destruction
of bone marrow from toxins, radiation, or medications
unable to tolerate cold, paleness of skin, mucous membranes, gums, nail
beds; shortness of breath, palpitations.
in advanced stages where the heart is overworked. Work with the care of
a physician. Refer to appropriate health care provider.
Causes: oxygen deprivation
in the heart; usually from blocked arteries, anemia, or hyperthyroidism
tight pain in the chest, left shoulder, arm and jaw area usually after
Ok; reduce stress; Trigger point chest area, ribs, sternum
with ok of physician
Refer to appropriate health care provider. May be on beta blockers
or other medications to dilate coronary vessels.
dilation caused by the pressure of blood on a section of the wall of the
artery that may be thin and weak due to high blood pressure, atherosclerosis
or unhealthy connective tissue.
Causes: May be due
to surgical procedure, smoking, genetics, nutritional deficiency, coughing,
have back pain, chest pain, coughing, or other problems in area where aneurysm
Depending on the region; Have area checked by physician, get medical clearance;
avoid pressure on pulses: Refer to appropriate health care provider. Be
sure to do a complete history - warning signs may be heart disease, atherosclerosis
and/or high blood pressure.
Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS)
of rheumatic arthritis that affects the spine and sacroiliac joint
but may be viral, bacterial, fungal such as candida or genetic, auto-immune
become inflamed, stiff and rigid and often calcification occurs at the
articular surfaces: may affect breathing if between the ribs and spine;
postural deformities often result (flexion)
is OK when inflammation subacute.
Use caution when working around inflammation -inflammation may be in other
areas. Refer to appropriate health care provider. Acupuncture may
Emotionally erratic or unusual behavior
Causes: Stress, food
allergies, malfunction in brain chemistry, caffeine based stimulants (coffee,
chocolate, sodas), blood sugar imbalances
attacks, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, chest pain, dizziness,
nausea, hot flashes/chills, nightmares
For severe cases (dissociation, destructive behavior) have client consult
a psychologist or counselor, naturopath, acupuncturist or other health
of the mucosal lining of the appendix usually followed by infection
of the appendix by fecal matter, inflammation, food , carcinoma, stenosis,
or kinking of the organ
in lower right quadrant of abdomen, lack or loss of appetite, nausea, and
vomiting. Pain may intensify with sneezing, coughing or with movement
Refer to physician immediately if acute. Refer to appropriate health
care provider for treatment.
Inflammatory joint disease; approximately 25 different types
Most common: Rheumatoid
- chronic, systemic auto immune disease characterized by joint stiffness
upon awakening that lasts longer than one hour, swelling in specific finger
or wrist joints, movement sounds like crinkling cellophane; most painful
and crippling; possible causes are nutritional deficiencies, stress, bacterial
Osteoarthritis - degenerative
joint disease usually gradual in onset which may involve inflammation,
enlargement of the joint and muscle contracture; cartilage deteriorates
causing irregularities in the gliding surfaces of joints, usually affecting
weight bearing joints; may be caused by previous injuries, loose joints,
hormonal and nutritional deficiencies, poor diet, poor elimination
Infectious arthritis - caused
by bacterial, viral or fungal infection.
Gout - high levels of uric
acid crystals are deposited in the joint; usually the big toe causing swelling,
redness heat and extreme pain; possibly caused by high intake of rich foods
Ok; work above area affected to increase circulation and assist in removing
toxins; loosening muscles may be beneficial to osteoarthritis prevention
inflammation; Check medications; Steroid use may cause brittle bones and
problems with internal organs. Refer to appropriate health care provider.
Society of Canada
Definition : Muscular
contraction of the bronchial tubes of the lungs characterized by
wheezing and breathing difficulty. The spasms are a result of chronic inflammation
or hypersensitivity of the airways to certain stimuli such as an allergenic
Causes: May be allergic
reaction, may be due to lack of water, adrenal disorders, anxiety, exercise,
low blood sugar, stress, possibly hereditary.
tubes become filled with mucous, tightness in the chest, wheezing, coughing,
difficulty exhaling, may be exercise induced
May be induced by trigger points in the serratus posterior superior.
Also check scalenes, intercostals, serratus posterior inferior, diaphragm,
psoas. May be beneficial to open up the fascia of the thoracic region.
General relaxation for stress management. Breathing exercises to
activate nervous system.
: Client may be taking steroids which may cause deterioration of internal
organs and bones. Refer to appropriate health care provider.
Imperfect refractive powers of the eye in which refraction of several meridians
of the eyeball is affected, usually due to a change in the curvature of
the cornea and lens; images do not focus properly on the eye.
Massage OK; refer to eye exercises and eye relaxation.
None; be alert for contact lenses. Refer to Bates Vision specialist.
infection of the foot
Causes: Warmth and
dampness of the feet; destruction of beneficial bacteria in the body may
add to spread (antibiotic use)
burning, itching, scaling, cracking, blisters
Tea tree oil may help.
May be contagious if the right environment exists: Avoid inflammation.
Refer to appropriate health care provider.
Links to picture - University
of Iowa Dermatology
of the arteries due to build up of calcium (arteriosclerosis) or fatty
substances (atherosclerosis); circulation becomes impaired causing high
blood pressure, chest pain, heart attack, stroke
hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, genetics, lack of exercise, poor
diet of fatty foods, obesity, stress: The arteries are damaged by
free radicals and the constant constriction that smoking causes.
The fatty substances are deposited in damaged areas, causing constriction.
be in legs - aching muscles, fatigue, numbness, heavy feeling in legs,
high blood pressure, aneurysms, thrombus, heart attack, arrhythmia
may assist in making lifestyle changes, reducing stress, detoxification.
be on anticoagulant medications which may cause bruising during treatment;
refer to appropriate health care provider; Can be Reversed through
Diet Modification and Exercise. Refer to appropriate health care provider
for lifestyle changes. Physician monitoring is recommended.
of the skin: sometimes eczema is given this general title.
wheat, chemicals, dairy), poor diet ( too much sugar, white flour, fats,
fried foods, processed foods), stress, chronic tension, toxic colon, hereditary
red skin, papules, vesicles, crust, scaling, flaking, thickening of skin
usually behind the knees, elbows or on face
may be helpful ( chaparral, dandelion, yellow dock root). Vitamin
E in oil may be beneficial
to appropriate health care provider.
Links to pictures- University
of Iowa, Indiana
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD/ADHD)
of the nervous system seen mostly in children but also in adults
prenatal problems, deprivation of oxygen at birth, chemical pollutants,
heavy metal toxicity, artificial food additives in diet, allergies to foods
such as dairy products or wheat, blood sugar imbalances, lack of
protein in diet, phosphates in sodas may cause hyperkinesis ( exaggerated
Hyperactivity, learning disabilities, lack of concentration, difficulty
solving problems, sleep disturbances, emotional instability
Massage for stress reduction: grounding
Ritalin may cause slow down in growth in bones and muscles of children:
Refer to appropriate health care provider for nutritional and lifestyle
physical, neurological disorder in which children withdraw from life
vaccines, food allergies (wheat, dairy), brain injury, candida overgrowth
withdrawn, unable to communicate, lack of feeling or awareness, hyperactive,
low blood sugar, digestive disorders ( celiacs disease, crohn's, ulcerative
colitis, anemia), malabsorption
for stress reduction, release spastic muscles
Caution: May lack feeling or awareness so begin lightly and work gradually
Links - Allergy
Center for Study of Autism
for Dietary Intervention