Residential Property Management
Residential Property Management
Assistant Manager, Leasing
Hospitality Reservations Manager
Commercial Ast Manager
Clinical Massage Therapy
Being a Male Therapist
Many occupational hazards of adult life will be greatly alleviated by
aching back and shoulder after a long office stint
exhaustion or overstrained muscles from physical labor or
circulatory problems from too little exercise by sedentary
Customer Management Tip
Creating Customer Loyalty
End user Training
Chapter 18 - Social Psychology
The goal of social psychologists is to study how
we feel about, relate, and influence each other
- Fritz Heider’s Attribution Theory states
that people “attribute” (link) others’
behaviors with their (internal) disposition
or (external) situations. I.e. A person
that always smiles at a party might give the
impression to others that he is a happy guy
(dispositional attribution) or the party is
making him happy (situational attribution).
- Fundamental Attribution Error – When
someone attributes others’ behavior as a
reflection of their “real” internal
disposition not considering situational
effects. That is, one makes the mistake of
underestimating situational influence and
overestimating personality influence. I.e.
Observing a police officer at work will make
you think that they are forceful,
non-tolerating, and even aggressive
(overestimating personality influence) but
this is so because their job demands such
actions (underestimating situation
influence). However, catch them off duty in
a pet shop and you might see how caring and
sincere they are.
- Attitudes – Your feelings and beliefs
that direct the way you respond to your
surroundings. In turn, your actions can
also dictate your attitudes; so attitudes
and actions exist in an enduring cycle.
- Foot-in-the-door-phenomenon – Tendency
for people who have agreed on a small
request to comply later to a larger one.
I.e. you are likely to agree to a small
questionnaire from a salesman at first and
then also to agree to larger request say
purchasing what he has to offer.
- Role – Expectations on how one should
behave in a certain social position. I.e.
Adults should be responsible, professors
should be intellectual, soldiers should be
- In Philip Zimbardo’s 1972 prison study,
students were randomly assigned to act as
prisoners or guards. In less than a week,
the students became so absorbed into their
“role playing” that the roles they played
actually became themselves. The guards
adopted abusive attitudes and the prisoners
became discouraged and even rebellious.
After the study, the students quickly grew
back into their normal roles.
- Cognitive Dissonance Theory – States
that if what we believe and what we do are
inconsistent, we will feel cognitive
dissonance (discomforting tension) and we
will reduce this tension by altering our
attitudes. I.e. If you were made to write
about the advantages of a topic you disagree
on (say more homework), you’ll feel uneasy
and start believing your words to comfort
- Conformity – often due to group
pressure, is the adjustment of your behavior
or thinking to coincide with others.
Examples of conformity include: laughing
when others are laughing, going to a stand
in the mall crowded with people, giving more
to charity baskets because there’s lots of
- Norms – Expected or proper behavior in a
- Normative Social Influence – Person
conforms because they want to gain social
- (NORMative – following the social norm)
- Informative Social Influence – Person
conforms because they accept others’
judgment on reality.
- (INFOrmative –accepting info/facts about
- Stanley Milgrim’s Obedience Study –
Participants act as teachers who deliver
electrical shocks to examinee’s that answer
incorrectly. The magnitude of voltages
increase as the number of questions answered
incorrectly increase. Even though screaming
sounds of pain were heard from the examinee,
63% of the participants delivered right up
to the last 450-volts. The experiment
showed that obedience was highest when: the
order giver has high authority, the victim
was far away or unseen, no one was seen
- Social Facilitation – Improved
performance on well learned tasks in the
presence of others (audience).
- Social Loafing – Diminished effort when
working in a group towards a common goal.
(slacking off others)
- Deindividuation – The loss of self-
restraint when one is part of a large group.
- Group Polarization – Pre-existing
attitudes become enhanced when discussed
with in a group. I.e. When abusive parents
talk together, they feel their actions are
more justified and become even more abusive.
- Group Think – Where people in group
discussions tend to agree with whatever is
being proposed in order to maintain
hormony. Alternative views are suppressed
even though they are better than the
- Culture – Passed on behaviors, ideas,
and attitudes shared by a many people.
- The minority can pursuade the majority
if they are consistent and committed. I.e.
Mahatma Gandhi’s fight for independence.
- Personal Space – The “zone” we like to
maintain around our bodies. This is
culture-dependent. Western cultures have a
relatively small personal space because of
the hugs and kisses. Eastern cultures,
however, like to maintain a relatively open
- Gender Roles – Expected behaviors from
males and females in a culture.
- Prejudice – Often negative beliefs,
emotions, and actions towards a group and
its individual members. These attitudes are
based on Stereotypes – overgeneralizations
about a group of people. These unjustified
thoughts bring about discrimination and
social inequalities. I.e. Negro’s are
perceived as violent as they push people the
same way a Caucasian would.
- Ingroup Bias – Favoring of your own
group. This kind of thinking promotes
separations among the human race as people
are classified as “ingroup” and “outgroup.”
- Scapegoat Theory – Justification of
one’s prejudice/anger is sought in blaming
someone (target). In order to boost one’s
self-esteem they will resort to degrading
- Just-world phenomenon – Belief that the
world is “just the way it is.” I.e. people
get what they deserve and deserve what they
get (promotes blame and lowers the tendency
to help others).
- Aggression – Physical or verbal behavior
intended to hurt or destroy others. People
who are aggression-prone are more likely to
drink and become violent.
- Frustration-aggression principle –
Frustration creates Aggression.
- Repeated exposure to violent shows
diminishes ones self-inhibition just as
watching pornography makes one’s partner
seem less attractive.
- Conflict – Inconsistencies of actions,
goals, and/or ideas.
- Social Traps – A situation in which both
parties are aiming for self-interest only
and therefore gets tied in a mutually
destructive situation. I.e. When fishing
companies anticipate that other companies
will fish just as much or more as themselves
so they continue to rigoriously fish.
Eventually this situation results in a
depletion of fish because none of the
companies would lower their fishing amount.
- Mere-exposure effect – Increased liking
of a stimulus due to repeated exposure to
it. I.e. The more you look at a picture the
more you like it.
- You will become friends with those
geographically close to you (proximity).
Also, you are likely to marry someone who
has the same level of physical
attractiveness as you.
- Passionate Love – Usually present at the
beginning of a relationship, this is state
of intense “HOT” intimate love.
- Companionate Love – The affectionate
attachment that replaces passionate love and
persists in marriage.
- Equity – The constant sharing between
partners. You freely get what you freely
give. Equity increases chances of sustained
- Self-disclosure – Telling your most
intimate aspects (fears, wishes, dreams) to
another (Disclosing yourself).
- Altruism – Unselfishness, being nice,
unconditional help to others. This positive
social interaction dictates the very quality
of a hero.
- Bystander Effect – Diminished
possibility of giving aid when other
bystanders are present. Or failure to take
responsibility of the situation when others
are around. In order for a bystander to
give aid to someone in need, 3 steps must be
- The incident is noticed
- The incident is acknowledged as an
- Responsibility of the incident is
- Social exchange theory – (reciprocity
norm) social interactions are regarded as an
exchange process where the goal is to
maximize benefits and minimize costs.
- Superordinate Goals – Common goals that
overlook individual differences and acquired
through total cooperation.
- GRIT – Graduated and Reciprocated
Initiatives in Tension-Reduction. Strategy
for reduction of international tensions
through win-win attitudes and communication.
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Myers, David G., Psychology Fifth Edition.
Worth Publishers, Inc. New York, NY ©1998