Residential Property Management
Residential Property Management
Assistant Manager, Leasing
Hospitality Reservations Manager
Commercial Ast Manager
Clinical Massage Therapy
Being a Male Therapist
Many occupational hazards of adult life will be greatly alleviated by
aching back and shoulder after a long office stint
exhaustion or overstrained muscles from physical labor or
circulatory problems from too little exercise by sedentary
Customer Management Tip
Creating Customer Loyalty
End user Training
Chapter 08 -
One of our most enduring abilities that have
ensured our survival is adaptivity, which in
turn is crafted by Learning – an enduring change
in behavior and knowledge due to experience.
- Organisms learn by forming associations
between cause and effect (or two events).
In other words, they are exhibiting
associative learning. People associate the
sight of lightning with thunder so next time
they see lightning they anticipate thunder.
- Behaviorism , developed by Behaviorist
John Watson, is the view that psychology
should be and objective science
- Classical Conditioning - developed by
Ivan Pavlov, the type of learning in which
stimuli is associated with an Involuntary
Response. Pavlov was famous for his dog
salvation experiment in which he accustomed
dogs to salivate at the tone of ringing
- Respondent Behavior – An automatic
response to a certain stimuli (“responding
- Unconditioned Response (UCR) – The
normal response that is generated
(unlearned) I.e. In Pavlov’s experiment, the
normal response a dog has when presented
with food is salivation.
- Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) – The
stimulus that triggers a normal response
(UCR) I.e. The food is the UCS in Pavlov’s
- Conditioned Response (CR) – The
response that is learned (“conditioned”)
I.e. Pavlov’s dogs learned to salivate upon
the presence of a ringing tone.
- Conditioned Stimulus (CS) - A neutral
stimulus that triggers a learned response.
I.e. The ringing is a CS because the dogs
learned to salivate at the presence of a
ringing tone as opposed to food.
- This kind of association is possible
because Pavlov presented a ringing tone
every time before food is given to the dog.
Eventually, the dog learned to anticipate
food at the sound of ringing, so they
- There are 5 major processes with
- Acquisition – The initial formation
of the association between CS and CR.
This works well when the CS is
presented half a second before UCS is
- Extinction - If the UCS is not
presented after CS for a couple of
times, the organism will lose
receptivity to the CS. I.e. If after
the ringing tone no food arrives, the
dog stops to salivate at the presence of
just a tone.
- Spontaneous Recovery – However, if
the UCS is again presented after the CS,
extinction ceases and the organism again
begins to respond to the CS. I.e., the
food is again presented after ringing –
- Generalization – The tendency for
organisms to respond similarly to
similar (generalization) stimuli as the
CS. I.e. Pavlov’s dog salivating to the
sound of beeping that is similar to
ringing. This is good because if you
teach children to watch out for cars,
they will also watch out for similar
objects like trucks and vans.
- Discrimination – The ability to
distinguish (discriminate) between
different stimuli, so you don’t react
the same way to everything.
- Two contradicting facts: Rats will learn
to avoid food that made them ill even if the
illness happens hours after eating it.
Second, Rats will dislike the taste that
made them ill but not the sight of the food.
- Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning has led
to a variety of practical uses like helping
drug addicts, increasing the immune system
efficiency, and treating emotional
- Operant Conditioning developed by B.F.
Skinner, is a type of learning where
organisms learn to Voluntarily respond a
certain way depending on the consequences
(like reward or punishment).
- Operant Behavior – The learned behavior
that acts upon the situation and this
behavior produces consequences. I.e.. If
you learned that eating on the bed makes
your parents mad at you, your eating
behavior will change depending on what kind
of responses you want the situation (parents
yelling or not) to have.
- Law of Effect – Behavior that is
rewarded is more likely to occur again.
- Skinner Box – The box Skinner used to
research on animal behavior. The box has a
bar/button that the animal can push to
obtain rewards (food). The rate of pushing
- Shaping – Gradually rewarding the
organism as it approaches the desired
behavior. I.e.. If you want a bird to peck
on a bar, you would feed it every time it
got closer and closer to the bar but
ignoring every other behavior it does. Thus,
you are shaping the behavior with successive
- Reinforcers – anything that increases
the chances of the behavior happening again
- Positive Reinforcement – Rewards, like
appraisal, money, food.
- Negative Reinforcement – Removing of
aversive events. I.e., freeing from jail,
stopping someone crying, eating medicine
that rids a cold, and drinking cold water to
cool you down. (Taking away bad things)
- Primary Reinforcers – Things that
satisfies Inborn biological needs. I.e..
Food, water, warmth etc.
- Secondary Reinforcers – Learned things
that are strengthened by primary
reinforcers. I.e.. Money, which can buy
food – primary reinforcer; praises, high
grades, smiles, which are all associated
with basic needs of happiness.
- Continuous Reinforcement – Reinforcing
the behavior every time it occurs. This
method of learning is quick. But when
reinforcement stops, extinction can happen
- Partial Reinforcement – Reinforcing a
behavior parts of the time.
Acquisition/learning is slow but more
resistant to extinction.
- Four schedules of Partial reinforcement:
1. Fixed-Ratio – Reinforcement after
“fixed” number of responses. I.e..
Getting candy after washing the floor
every 3 times.
2. Variable-Ratio – Reinforcement
after an “unpredictable” number of
responses I.e.. Getting candy after
washing the floor 2 times then getting
candy after washing 5 times…then 3
3. Fixed-Interval – Reinforcement
after a “fixed” amount of time. I.e..
Getting Candy 3 hours after every time
the floor is washed.
4. Variable-Interval – Reinforcement
after an “unpredictable” amount of
time. I.e.. Getting Candy 2 hours after
the floor is washed then getting candy 5
hours after washing…then 3 hours…
- Punishment – Opposite of reinforcement,
punishment decreases the chances of a
- Although punishment can successfully
stop the undesired behavior, it also has
drawbacks. Punished behaviors are not
forgotten, just suppressed until appropriate
situations; punishment increases
aggressiveness and attributes them to the
- Cognitive Map – Mental images of ones
surroundings. I.e.. Mice develop cognitive
maps that represent a maze they just ran
- Latent Learning – Demonstration of
acquired knowledge only when it is needed.
I.e.. Mice who explored a maze only
demonstrate that they know the maze well by
directly going to the food placed the
- Overjustification Effect – Giving a
reward for something the organism already
likes to do. This is unfavorable because
the organism will lose the intrinsic
interest and rely on rewards for they
behavior. I.e.. Being paid to put together
your favorite puzzle.
- Skinner’s Operant Conditioning has many
useful applications like increasing student
performance, influencing productivity in
jobs, and helping shape children behaviors.
Learning by Observation
- Observational learning – Researched by
Albert Bandura in the 1960’s, this is a
type of learning that is accomplished by
Modeling - watching specific behaviors of
others and imitating them.
- Prosocial Behavior – Actions that are
constructive, beneficial, and nonviolent.
These behaviors can prompt similar ones in
others. Thus, “Pro-social”.
- Experiments show that children do
exactly what their models (parents) do.
Hypocritical parents say one thing and do
another; their children will say what they
say and do what they do.
[ Critical Thinking ] [ Neuroscience ] [ Developing Child ] [ Adolescence ] [ Sensation ] [ Perseption ] [ Consciousness ] [ Learning ] [ Memory ] [ Thinking ] [ Inteligence ] [ Motivation ] [ Emotion ] [ Personality ] [ Psych Disorders ] [ Therapy ] [ Stress ] [ Social Psych ] [ Statistics ] [ Critical Thinking ]
Myers, David G., Psychology Fifth Edition.
Worth Publishers, Inc. New York, NY ©1998